When you have been teaching Spanish learners for a while, you realise that many of them have the same problems when speaking English.
Sometimes it feels as if you’re banging your head against a brick wall. No matter how many times you tell your Spanish students to say: “She has blue eyes” they continue to say “She has eyes blues.”
What’s wrong with them? Don’t they ever listen?
Before you start blaming THEM, think about your own second language learning history for a minute.
What about all the mistakes you make when you speak a second language?
How many times have you been corrected? Why do you still keep making the same mistakes over and over again?
It’s patently clear that the way we communicate in our second language is always influenced by our native tongue. Experts debate whether we should call this L1 interference or transfer, but whichever term you prefer, it’s the reason for many of these fossilised errors which we find almost impossible to shed.
In this blog, I’m going to point out 10 reasons why Spanish speakers make certain errors. Knowing about these problems may help you and your students find ways to resolve them.
1. How many vowel sounds are there in Spanish? How many in English?
Spanish has 5 vowel sounds and English has….12. The other problem is that the length of the vowel sound is not an important feature which leads to classic misunderstandings such as: In Spain, there are many hot bitches!
2. Consonants also cause problems for Spanish speakers. Some English phonemes have equivalents in Spanish but others are distinctive sounds.
Ζ /∫ / ð / ν / ʤ / ʒ / h have no real match in Spanish.
3. Consonant Clusters are far more common in English than in Spanish. A simple word (for native English speakers) like ‘breakfast’ is tough for Spaniards who will often pronounce it ‘brefas’ and omit the ‘f’ and the final ‘t’ because they are attached to another consonant. They also need a run-up to manage names like ‘Stephen’ and insert a vowel sound before the first cluster of s / t and will often say ‘Estephen’.
4. The relationship in English between pronunciation and orthography (sound and spelling) is a nightmare for Spanish speakers because these two aspects are joined at the hip in their language. Words sound as they are spelled and are spelled like they sound. This is clearly not the case in English.
5. Whereas English is generally categorised as a stress-timed language, Spanish is usually considered to be a syllable-timed language. In English, we would put the beat on the content syllables in this sentence:
The Beatles were bigger than Elvis.
A Spanish speaker might pronounce each syllable equally and this might sound robotic to English speaker ears and we might struggle to identify the key content.
The / Beat / les / were / big / ger / than / El / vis.
6. The Spanish language doesn’t really have contracted forms in the same way as English. This means they can’t always hear them (I’ll see you tomorrow: Yes, I see you tomorrow) or they misuse them (Are you Pedro? Yes, I’m).
7. In English, an adjective comes before a noun (black cat) but the noun generally comes before the adjective in Spanish (cat black). The other problem is that we talk about ‘black cats’ in English but ‘gatos negros’ in Spanish. In other words, the adjective has a plural form which it doesn’t in English.
8. Asking questions with auxiliary verbs is a minefield for Spanish speakers. They often omit them and just use an affirmative form:
You are happy?
Sometimes they remember the auxiliary but put the main verb in the past tense to make sure they are understood:
Did you went to the party?
Question tags are also problematic due to the fact that there is a one-size fits all tag in Spanish (You are hungry, no?) unlike English which is far more structurally complex.
9. Subject personal pronouns (I, You, She, He, We, It, They) are often unnecessary in Spanish as the form of the main verb identifies the subject. This is why you’ll hear Spanish speakers say things like:
‘Is Bob here?’ ‘Yes, is here.’
‘It is possible to pass the exam?’ ‘Yes. is possible.’
10. False friends. Your Spanish students may surprise you with the depth and complexity of their vocabulary. However, these words are often cognates (similar words in two languages such as intelligent and inteligente) and derive from Latin. This can be beneficial to Spanish students who can often understand complex authentic texts in English. On the other hand, just as English speakers often change English suffixes to Spanish ones to form words (apparently to apparentemente), Spanish speakers often try to use a Spanish word only to find that it has a very different meaning in English.
This is a topic I’ll be returning to in a future post but I’ll leave you with one of my favourite excuses for missing a lesson:
Pedro: ‘Sorry professor, I couldn’t assist the class because of my strong constipation.’
So, next time, you groan inwardly or outwardly about a repeated error made by your Spanish students, cut them some slack but explain why they are wrong.
Bibliography: Swan, M & Smith, B. Learner English. Cambridge. 2001.
Are there any other major differences between Spanish and English which cause problems?